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Ozgur Eker (CDCS)

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Hello. My name is Ozgur Eker. Since 2009, I am a professional and independent letter of credit consultant from Izmir, Turkey. I have a bachelor's degree in business administration and master's degree in international trade and finance; awarded with CDCS (Certified Documentary Credit Specialist) two times between (2010-2013) and (2013-2016).
bill of lading title. ocean or marine bill of lading

Importance of Bill of Lading Title: Ocean or Marine Bill of Lading

Issuing banks often require an ocean bill of lading or a marine bill of lading under letters of credit as a transport document. The question...
Made Out to the Order of

What Does “Made Out to the Order of” Mean in a Bill of Lading?

Majority of the letters of credits are asking for a bill of lading which must be issued made out to the order of the...
costs additional to freight

Costs Additional to Freight

If a letter of credit indicates that costs additional to freight are not acceptable, a transport document is not to indicate that costs additional...
Top 5 Discrepancies in a Commercial Invoice

Top 5 Discrepancies in a Commercial Invoice

Commercial invoice is one of the key documents in a letter of credit transaction. Almost all documentary credits, either commercial or standby, requesting a commercial invoice...
document issued or countersigned by the applicant

Document Issued or Countersigned by the Applicant: What are the Risks?

What are the risks of a document which is to be issued, signed or countersigned by the applicant in a letter of credit transaction? In...
Payment-Methods-in-International-Trade.png

Payment Methods in International Trade

There are 5 types of payment methods available in international trade. These payment types are cash-in-advance, open account, documentary collections, documentary credits (letters of credit)...
Presentation - Top 10 Letter of Credit Discrepancies

Presentation – Top 10 Letter of Credit Discrepancies

What is a Discrepancy? There is no definition of a discrepancy under the current letter of credit rules, UCP 600. Discrepancy can be defined...
Presentation – Letter of Credit Documents

Presentation – Letter of Credit Documents

Proforma Invoice In international trade transactions, a proforma invoice is a trade document which states a commitment from the seller (exporter) to sell goods...
Presentation - Types of Letters of Credit

Presentation – Types of Letters of Credit

Commercial Letters of Credit Commercial credits are used mainly in export and import transactions of tangible goods. Majority of commercial letters of credit are...
Presentation – Parties to the Letter of Credit

Presentation – Parties to the Letter of Credit

Issuing Bank Issuing Bank is the bank that issues a letter of credit at the request of an applicant or its own behalf. Letter...
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