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Ozgur Eker (CDCS)

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Hello. My name is Ozgur Eker. Since 2009, I am a professional and independent letter of credit consultant from Izmir, Turkey. I have a bachelor's degree in business administration and master's degree in international trade and finance; awarded with CDCS (Certified Documentary Credit Specialist) two times between (2010-2013) and (2013-2016).
How to determine date of shipment on a Non-Negotiable Sea Waybill?

How to Determine Date of Shipment on a Sea Waybill?

Date of shipment is one of the key definitions in a letter of credit transaction. It is used to determine whether shipment made on...
How to determine date of shipment on a Multimodal Bill of Lading?

How to Determine Date of Shipment on a Multimodal Bill of Lading?

Date of shipment is one of the key definitions in a letter of credit transaction. It is used to determine whether shipment made on...
To Order and Blank Endorsed Bill of Lading

To Order and Blank Endorsed Bill of Lading

Bill of lading, which is a transport document used in international trade, is an authentic receipt delivered by a carrier, confirming that the goods...
bill of lading title. ocean or marine bill of lading

Importance of Bill of Lading Title: Ocean or Marine Bill of Lading

Issuing banks often require an ocean bill of lading or a marine bill of lading under letters of credit as a transport document. The question...
Made Out to the Order of

What Does “Made Out to the Order of” Mean in a Bill of Lading?

Majority of the letters of credits are asking for a bill of lading which must be issued made out to the order of the...
costs additional to freight

Costs Additional to Freight

If a letter of credit indicates that costs additional to freight are not acceptable, a transport document is not to indicate that costs additional...
Top 5 Discrepancies in a Commercial Invoice

Top 5 Discrepancies in a Commercial Invoice

Commercial invoice is one of the key documents in a letter of credit transaction. Almost all documentary credits, either commercial or standby, requesting a commercial invoice...
document issued or countersigned by the applicant

Document Issued or Countersigned by the Applicant: What are the Risks?

What are the risks of a document which is to be issued, signed or countersigned by the applicant in a letter of credit transaction? In...
Payment-Methods-in-International-Trade.png

Payment Methods in International Trade

There are 5 types of payment methods available in international trade. These payment types are cash-in-advance, open account, documentary collections, documentary credits (letters of credit)...
Presentation - Top 10 Letter of Credit Discrepancies

Presentation – Top 10 Letter of Credit Discrepancies

What is a Discrepancy? There is no definition of a discrepancy under the current letter of credit rules, UCP 600. Discrepancy can be defined...
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